Diazepam is a member of the benzodiazepine group of centrally acting drugs. The benzodiazepines are responsible for muscle relaxant, sedative, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects at clinical dose rates.
Ataxia results from higher dose rates.
Benzodiazepines exert their pharmacological effects by enhancing the inhibitory GABA neurotransmitters in the CNS. The GABA receptor is a Cl-channel that opens upon activation, permitting Cl-influx and membrane hyperpolarisation. This results in inhibition of neurotransmission.
Work with labelled benzodiazepines has demonstrated the presence of discrete, high-affinity benzodiazepine receptive sites in mammalian brain.
These receptors are widely distributed throughout the grey matter and have been postulated responsible for the anxiolytic and anticonvulsant actions of the benzodiazepines.
Convulsant Seizures: Neonatal foals
Generalised seizures with episodi c convulsion in the neonatal foal are rapidly controlled in many cases by intravenous injection of diazepam. Dose rates of between 5mg and 20mg (1-4mL Ilium Diazepam Injection) per 50kg bodyweight are administered by slow intravenous injection and repeated when necessary. Diazepam administration may be fatal at higher dose rates in the convulsing foal. Lack of response or rapid reappearance of seizures following repeated dosage with diazepam will necessitate administration of phenobarbital sodium by slow intravenous injection.
Diazepam is administered as a premedicant to xylazine/ketamine anaesthesia in horses to smooth both anaesthetic induction and recovery. The advantages of the regimen are retained, viz.
Analgesia, muscle relaxation and stable cardiopulmonary function.
Ilium Diazepam Injection is administered by intramuscular injection at a dose rate of 60mg per 450kg bodyweight (12mL/450kg bw), twenty minutes prior to xylazine injection. Xylazine is administered by intravenous injection at a dose rate of 1.1mg/kg xylazine per 450kg body weight, with sedation and ataxia resulting in 2-3 minutes.
Ketamine is then administered to finalise induction at a dose rate of 2.2mg/kg ketamine per 450kg body weight by rapid intravenous injection.
Diazepam injection administered intramuscularly or intravenously at 0.2-0.6mg/kg (0.2-0.6 mL Ilium Diazepam Injection per 5kg bodyweight) is a safe and effective premedicant to various anaesthetic regimes in the dog. Premedication with diazepam is appropriate for the cardiac-compromised patient.
Status Epilepticus: Dogs
Diazepam injection has been successfully applied to the treatment of clinical cases of status epilepticus in dogs. An initial dose of 5mg (1mL Ilium Diazepam Injection). A repeat dose is given if the initial dose fails to satisfactorily dispel the seizure within one to two minutes. Pentobarbital sodium (16.5mg/kg by slow intravenous injection) is then administered if the clinical signs persist following the second diazepam injection. In the healthy adult patient, mild generalised weakness and tranquillisation are usually evident for about 3 hours following diazepam administration.
Strychnine Poisoning: Dogs
Diazepam is the first line drug of choice for control of life-threatening seizures which characterise dogs presenting with strychnine poisoning. Initial intravenous dosage of 1mg/kg diazepam (2mL Ilium Diazepam Injection per 10kg bodyweight) slowly by intravenous injection, followed by the same dose by intramuscular injection may be administered to initiate treatment for strychnine poisoning.
For use as an anticonvulsant in foals and as a preanaesthetic to xylazine/ketamine anaesthesia in horses. For use as a preanaesthetic and anticonvulsant in dogs.
Direction for Use: Contraindications:
This product is contraindicated for use in pregnant animals.
Avoid intra-arterial administration.
Avoid injection into small veins as phlebitis and thrombosis may result.
Ilium Diazepam Injection should be given by slow intravenous injection as propylene glycol contained in the formulation may cause bradycardia and fatal cardiac arrest if administration is too rapid.
Diazepam binds extensively to plasma proteins and should be used cautiously with other drugs that also have high plasma-pro tein-binding activity.
Benzodiazepines potentiate the action of other CNS depressants.
Dosage and Administration:
Use the contents within 90 days of first broaching the vial. Discard the unused portion.
Dogs Preanaesthetic 1-3mg/5kg bw (0.2-0.6mL/5kg bw) i.m. or slow i.v. injection
Anticonvulsant 5mg/5kg bw (1mL/5kg bw) slow i.v. injection
Horses Preanaesthetic to xylazine/ketamine anaesthesia 60mg/450kg bw (12mL/450kg bw) intramuscular injection
Foals anticonvulsant 5-20mg/50kg bw (1.4mL/50kg bw) slow i.v. injection
||1-3mg/5kg bw (0.2-0.6mL/5kg bw)
||i.m. or slow i.v. injection
||5mg/5kg bw (1mL/5kg bw)
||slow i.v. injection
||Preanaesthetic to xylazine/ketamine anaesthesia
||60mg/450kg bw (12mL/450kg bw)
||5-20mg/50kg bw (1.4mL/50kg bw)
||slow i.v. injection
Diazepam is denatured by contact with plastic for more than a few minutes so Ilium Diazepam Injection should not be stored in plastic syringes.
Meat Withholding Period (Horses):
NOT TO BE USED in horses less than 28 days before slaughter for human consumption.
If poisoning occurs contact a doctor or Poisons Information Centre. Phone New Zealand 0800 764 766.
Dispose of empty container by wrapping with paper and putting in the garbage.
Store below 30°C (room temperature). Protect from light.
Registered pursuant to the ACVM Act 1997, No A10465
RESTRICTED VETERINARY MEDICINE
Ilium Diazepam Injection - For Animal Treatment Only